Flosarios de termos da internet

Se aínda non ten experiencia na internet, encontrará algúns termos con que non está familiarizado: explorador, marcador, correo electrónico, páxina principal, motor de busca e moitos outros. Para facilitar os primeiros pasos, este glosario explica algúns dos termos máis importantes que encontrará na internet, na intranet, no correo electrónico e nas novas.

CMIS

The Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) standard defines a domain model and Web Services and Restful AtomPub bindings that will enable greater interoperability of Enterprise Content Management (ECM) systems. CMIS uses Web services and Web 2.0 interfaces to enable rich information to be shared across Internet protocols in vendor-neutral formats, among document systems, publishers and repositories, within one enterprise and between companies.

EPUB

EPUB is standard for electronic book files with the extension .epub that can be downloaded and read on devices like smartphones, tablets, computers, or e-readers.

EPUB is a technical standard published now by the Publishing group of W3C. EPUB is a popular format because it is open and is based on HTML.

An EPUB publication is delivered as a single file and is an unencrypted zipped archive containing a website. It includes HTML files, images, CSS style sheets, and other assets such as metadata, multimedia and interactivity.

Etiquetas

As páxinas en HTML conteñen un tipo de instrucións estruturais e de formatado denominadas etiquetas. As etiquetas son palabras de código inseridas entre os sinais de maior e menor na linguaxe HTML de descrición do documento. Moitas etiquetas conteñen texto ou referencias a hiperligazóns entre os referidos sinais. Por exemplo, os títulos identifícanse coa etiqueta <h1> no inicio do título e con </h1> no final. Algunhas etiquetas aparecen soas, como <br>, que indica quebra de liña, ou <img ...>, que indica ligazón a unha imaxe.

FTP

FTP son as siglas de File Transfer Protocol, o protocolo estándar para a transferencia de ficheiros na internet. Un servidor FTP é un programa que, nun computador conectado á internet, almacena os ficheiros aínda non transmitidos por medio do FTP. O FTP é responsábel da transmisión e descarga de ficheiros da Internet, mentres que o HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) permite configurar a conexión e transferir datos entre os servidores e clientes WWW.

HTML

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) é unha linguaxe de código de documento utilizada como formato de ficheiro para documentos WWW. Deriva da SGML e integra texto, elementos gráficos, vídeos e son.

Se desexa escribir ordes de HTML directamente, por exemplo ao facer exercicios dun dos moitos libros de HTML dispoñíbeis, lembre que as páxinas en HTML son ficheiros de texto puros. Grave o documento co tipo de documento Texto e déalle a extensión de nome de ficheiro .HTML. Asegúrese de que non conteña acentos nin ningún outro carácter especial do conxunto de caracteres estendidos. Se desexa reabrir este ficheiro en LibreOffice e editar o código HTML tenno que cargar co tipo de ficheiro Text e non co tipo de ficheiro Páxinas web.

Na internet existen moitas páxinas que fornecen unha introdución á linguaxe HTML.

HTTP

O HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) consiste nun rexistro de transmisión de documentos WWW entre servidores WWW (hosts) e exploradores (clients).

Hiperligazón

As hiperligazóns son referencias cruzadas, realzadas no texto por medio de cores, que se poden activar premendo no rato. A través delas, os usuarios poden acceder a información específica dentro dun documento, así como a información relacionada noutros documentos.

In LibreOffice you can assign hyperlinks to text as well as to graphics and frames (see the Hyperlink Dialog icon on the Standard bar).

Java

The Java programming language is a platform independent programming language that is especially suited for use in the Internet. Web pages and applications programmed with Java class files can be used on all modern operating systems. Programs using Java programming language are usually developed in a Java development environment and then compiled to a "byte code".

Mapa de imaxe

An ImageMap is a reference-sensitive graphic or frame. You can click on defined areas of the graphic or frame to go to a target (URL), which is linked with the area. The reference areas, along with the linked URLs and corresponding text displayed when resting the mouse pointer on these areas, are defined in the ImageMap Editor.

Existen dous tipos diferentes de mapas de imaxe. O mapa de imaxe de cliente avalíase no computador cliente que cargou a imaxe da internet, mentres que o mapa de imaxe de servidor se avalía no computador servidor que fornece a páxina HTML na internet. Na avaliación realizada no servidor, premendo no mapa de imaxe, envíanse as coordenadas relativas do cursor de dentro da imaxe ao servidor e un programa destinado a ese efecto responde. Na avaliación realizada no cliente, premendo nun punto activo do mapa de imaxe, actívase o URL como se se tratase dunha ligazón de texto normal. O URL aparece debaixo do apuntador do rato cando o usuario pasa o cursor sobre o mapa de imaxe.

Como os mapas de imaxe se poden usar de formas moi diversas, tamén é posíbel almacenalos con diferentes formatos.

Formatos de mapas de imaxe

Os mapas de imaxe divídense basicamente en dous grupos: os analizados no servidor (ou sexa, o seu provedor da internet) e os analizados no explorador da web do computador do usuario.

Mapa de imaxe de cliente

The area of the picture or frame where the reader can click is indicated by the appearance of the linked URL when the mouse passes over the area. The ImageMap is stored in a layer below the picture and contains information about the referenced regions. The only disadvantage of Client Side ImageMaps is that older Web browsers cannot read them; a disadvantage that will, however, resolve itself in time.

When saving the ImageMap, select the file type SIP - StarView ImageMap. This saves the ImageMap directly in a format which can be applied to every active picture or frame in your document. However, if you just want to use the ImageMap on the current picture or frame, you do not have to save it in any special format. After defining the regions, simply click Apply. Nothing more is necessary. Client Side ImageMaps saved in HTML format are inserted directly into the page in HTML code.

Mapas de imaxe de servidor

Os mapas de imaxe de servidor móstranse na páxina en forma de imaxe ou marco. Prema no mapa de imaxe co rato para enviar as coordenadas da posición relativa ao servidor. Coa axuda dun programa extra, o servidor determinará o paso seguinte. Hai varios métodos incompatíbeis para definir este proceso. Os dous máis comúns son:

LibreOffice creates ImageMaps for both methods. Select the format from the File type list in the Save As dialog in the ImageMap Editor. Separate Map Files are created which you must upload to the server. You will need to ask your provider or network administrator which type of ImageMaps are supported by the server and how to access the evaluation program.

Marcos

Frames are useful for designing the layout of HTML pages. LibreOffice uses floating frames into which you can place objects such as graphics, movie files and sound. The context menu of a frame shows the options for restoring or editing frame contents. Some of these commands are also listed in Edit - Object when the frame is selected.

Motores de busca

O motor de busca é un servizo da internet, baseado nun programa de software, usado para explorar un volume importante de información usando palabras chave.

Proxy

A proxy is a computer in the network acting as a kind of clipboard for data transfer. Whenever you access the Internet from a company network and request a Web page that has already been read by a colleague, the proxy will be able to display the page much quicker, as long as it's still in the memory. All that has to be checked in this case is that the page stored in the proxy is the latest version. If this is the case, the page won't have to be downloaded from the much slower Internet but can be loaded directly from the proxy.

SGML

SGML stands for "Standard Generalized Markup Language". SGML is based on the idea that documents have structural and other semantic elements that can be described without reference to how such elements should be displayed. The actual display of such a document may vary, depending on the output medium and style preferences. In structured texts, SGML not only defines structures (in the DTD = Document Type Definition) but also ensures they are consistently used.

HTML is a specialized application of SGML. This means that most Web browsers support only a limited range of SGML standards and that almost all SGML-enabled systems can produce attractive HTML pages.

URL

The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) displays the address of a document or a server in the Internet. The general structure of a URL varies according to type and is generally in the form Service://Hostname:Port/Path/Page#Mark although not all elements are always required. An URL can be a FTP address, a WWW (HTTP) address, a file address or an e-mail address.

WebDAV

Short for Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning, an IETF standard set of platform-independent extensions to HTTP that allows users to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote Web servers. WebDAV features XML properties on metadata, locking - which prevents authors from overwriting each other's changes - namespace manipulation and remote file management. WebDav is sometimes referred to as DAV.

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