Mathematical Functions
This category contains the Mathematical functions for Calc. To open the Function Wizard, choose Insert  Function.
AGGREGATE
This function returns an aggregate result of the calculations in the range. You can use different aggregate functions listed below. The Aggregate function enables you to omit hidden rows, errors, SUBTOTAL and other AGGREGATE function results in the calculation.
SUMIFS
Returns the sum of the values of cells in a range that meets multiple criteria in multiple ranges.
\<bookmark_value\>ABS function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>absolute values\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>values;absolute\</bookmark_value\>ABS
Returns the absolute value of a number.
Syntax
ABS(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose absolute value is to be calculated.
Example:
Entering the value 56 will return an absolute value of 56.
Entering the value 56 will return an absolute value of 56.
The inverse trigonometric sine of 1 returns the value 1.57.
\<bookmark_value\>ACOS function\</bookmark_value\>ACOS
Returns the inverse trigonometric cosine of a number.
Syntax
ACOS(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value, whose inverse trigonometric cosine value is to be calculated.
To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function.
Example:
The inverse trigonometric cosine of 1 returns the value 3.14.
=DEGREES(ACOS(0.5)) returns 60. The cosine of 60 degrees is 0.5.
\<bookmark_value\>ACOSH function\</bookmark_value\>ACOSH
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.
Syntax
ACOSH(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose inverse hyperbolic cosine is to be calculated.
Number must be greater than or equal to 1.
Example:
The inverse hyperbolic cosine of 1 returns the value 0.
The inverse hyperbolic cosine of 1 returns the value 0.
\<bookmark_value\>ACOT function\</bookmark_value\>ACOT
Returns the inverse cotangent (the arccotangent) of the given number.
Syntax
ACOT(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose inverse cotangent is to be calculated.
To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function.
Example:
The inverse cotangent of 1 returns the value 2.36.
=DEGREES(ACOT(1)) returns 45. The tangent of 45 degrees is 1.
\<bookmark_value\>ACOTH function\</bookmark_value\>ACOTH
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of the given number.
Syntax
ACOTH(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose inverse hyperbolic cotangent is to be calculated.
An error results if Number is between 1 and 1 inclusive.
Example:
The inverse hyperbolic cotangent of 1.1 returns the value 1.52.
\<bookmark_value\>ASIN function\</bookmark_value\>ASIN
Returns the inverse trigonometric sine of a number.
Syntax
ASIN (Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose inverse trigonometric sine is to be calculated.
To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function.
Example:
The inverse trigonometric sine of 1 returns the value 1.57.
The inverse trigonometric tangent of 1 returns the value 0.79.
=DEGREES(ASIN(0.5)) returns 30. The sine of 30 degrees is 0.5.
\<bookmark_value\>ASINH function\</bookmark_value\>ASINH
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.
Syntax
ASINH(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose inverse hyperbolic sine is to be calculated.
Example:
The inverse hyperbolic sine of 90 returns the value 5.19.
The inverse trigonometric sine of 1 returns the value 1.57.
\<bookmark_value\>ATAN function\</bookmark_value\>ATAN
Returns the inverse trigonometric tangent of a number.
Syntax
ATAN(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose inverse trigonometric tangent value is to be calculated.
To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function.
Example:
The inverse trigonometric tangent of 1 returns the value 0.79.
=DEGREES(ATAN(1)) returns 45. The tangent of 45 degrees is 1.
\<bookmark_value\>ATAN2 function\</bookmark_value\>ATAN2
Returns the inverse trigonometric tangent of the specified x and y coordinates.
Syntax
ATAN2(Number x; number y)
\<emph\>Number x\</emph\> is the value for the x coordinate.
\<emph\>Number y\</emph\> is the value for the y coordinate.
ATAN2 returns the inverse trigonometric tangent, that is, the angle (in radians) between the xaxis and a line from point NumberX, NumberY to the origin. The angle returned is between PI and PI.
To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function.
Example:
Entering the value 45 for the x coordinate and the value 90 for the y coordinate will return an inverse trigonometric tangent of 1.11.
=DEGREES(ATAN2(12.3;12.3)) returns 45. The tangent of 45 degrees is 1.
\<bookmark_value\>ATANH function\</bookmark_value\>ATANH
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.
Syntax
ATANH(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose inverse hyperbolic tangent is to be calculated.
Number must obey the condition 1 < number < 1.
Example:
The inverse hyperbolic tangent of 0.99 returns the value 2.65.
\<bookmark_value\>CEILING function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>rounding;up to multiples of significance\</bookmark_value\>CEILING
Rounds a number up to the nearest multiple of Significance.
Syntax
CEILING(Number; Significance; Mode)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number that is to be rounded up.
\<emph\>Significance\</emph\> is the number to whose multiple the value is to be rounded up.
Mode is an optional value. If the Mode value is given and not equal to zero, and if Number and Significance are negative, then rounding is done based on the absolute value of Number, i.e. negative numbers are rounded away from zero. If the Mode value is equal to zero or is not given, negative numbers are rounded towards zero.
If the spreadsheet is exported to Microsoft Excel, the CEILING function is exported as the equivalent CEILING.MATH function that exists since Excel 2013. If you plan to use the spreadsheet with earlier Excel versions, use either CEILING.PRECISE that exists since Excel 2010, or CEILING.XCL that is exported as the CEILING function compatible with all Excel versions. Note that CEILING.XCL always rounds away from zero.
Example:
=CEILING( 11; 2) returns 10
=CEILING( 11; 2; 0) returns 10
=CEILING( 11; 2; 1) returns 12
CEILING.MATH
Rounds a number up to the nearest multiple of Significance.
Syntax
CEILING.MATH(Number; Significance; Mode)
Number is the number that is to be rounded up.
Significance is the number to whose multiple the value is to be rounded up.
Mode is an optional value. If the Mode value is given and not equal to zero, and if Number and Significance are negative, then rounding is done based on the absolute value of Number, i.e. negative numbers are rounded away from zero. If the Mode value is equal to zero or is not given, negative numbers are rounded towards zero.
This function exists for interoperability with Microsoft Excel 2013 or newer.
Example
=CEILING.MATH(10;3) returns 9
=CEILING.MATH(10;3;0) returns 9
=CEILING.MATH(10;3;1) returns 12
\<bookmark_value\>CEILING function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>rounding;up to multiples of significance\</bookmark_value\>CEILING.PRECISE
Rounds a number up to the nearest multiple of Significance, regardless of sign of Significance
Syntax
CEILING.PRECISE(Number; Significance)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number that is to be rounded up.
\<emph\>Significance\</emph\> is the number to whose multiple the value is to be rounded up.
Example:
=CEILING( 11; 2) returns 10
CEILING.XCL
Rounds a number away from zero to the nearest multiple of Significance.
Syntax
CEILING.XCL(Number; Significance)
Number is the number that is to be rounded.
Significance is the number to whose multiple the value is to be rounded.
This function exists for interoperability with Microsoft Excel 2007 or older versions.
Example
=CEILING.XCL(1;3) returns 3
=CEILING.XCL(7;4) returns 8
=CEILING.XCL(10;3) returns 12
\<bookmark_value\>COMBIN function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>number of combinations\</bookmark_value\>COMBIN
Returns the number of combinations for elements without repetition.
Syntax
COMBIN(count 1; count 2)
\<emph\>Count 1\</emph\> is the total number of elements.
\<emph\>Count 2\</emph\> is the select count from the elements.
COMBIN returns the number of ordered ways to choose these items. For example if there are 3 items A, B and C in a set, you can choose 2 items in 3 different ways, namely AB, AC and BC.
COMBIN implements the formula: Count1!/(Count2!*(Count1Count2)!)
Example:
If you enter 2 in text boxes Count 1 and 2, 1 will be returned as the result.
\<bookmark_value\>COMBINA function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>number of combinations with repetitions\</bookmark_value\>COMBINA
Returns the number of combinations of a subset of items including repetitions.
Syntax
COMBINA(count 1; count 2)
\<emph\>Count 1\</emph\> is the total number of elements.
\<emph\>Count 2\</emph\> is the select count from the elements.
COMBINA returns the number of unique ways to choose these items, where the order of choosing is irrelevant, and repetition of items is allowed. For example if there are 3 items A, B and C in a set, you can choose 2 items in 6 different ways, namely AA, AB, AC, BB, BC and CC.
COMBINA implements the formula: (Count1+Count21)! / (Count2!(Count11)!)
Example:
If you enter 2 in text boxes Count 1 and 2, 3 will be returned as the result.
\<bookmark_value\>Euro; converting in\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>CONVERT function\</bookmark_value\>CONVERT
Converts between old European national currency and to and from Euros.
Syntax
CONVERT(value;"Text"; "Text")
\<emph\>Value\</emph\> is the amount in the currency to be converted.
\<emph\>Text\</emph\> is the official abbreviation for the currency in question (for example, "EUR"). The first \<emph\>Text\</emph\> parameter gives the source value to be converted, the second \<emph\>Text\</emph\> parameter gives the destination value.
Full_precision is optional. If omitted or False, the result is rounded according to the decimals of the To currency. If Full_precision is True, the result is not rounded.
Triangulation_precision is optional. If Triangulation_precision is given and >=3, the intermediate result of a triangular conversion (currency1,EUR,currency2) is rounded to that precision. If Triangulation_precision is omitted, the intermediate result is not rounded. Also if To currency is "EUR", Triangulation_precision is used as if triangulation was needed and conversion from EUR to EUR was applied.
\<emph\>Example:\</emph\>
=CONVERT(100;"ATS";"EUR") converts 100 Austrian Schilling into Euro.
=CONVERT(100;"EUR";"DEM") converts 100 Euro into German Mark.
CONVERT_OOO
Converts a value from one unit of measurement to another unit of measurement. The conversion factors are given in a list in the configuration.
At one time the list of conversion factors included the legacy European currencies and the Euro (see examples below). We suggest using the new function EUROCONVERT for converting these currencies.
Syntax
CONVERT_OOO(value;"text";"text")
Example:
=CONVERT_OOO(100;"ATS";"EUR") returns the Euro value of 100 Austrian Schillings.
=CONVERT_OOO(100;"EUR";"DEM") converts 100 Euros into German Marks.
\<bookmark_value\>COS function\</bookmark_value\>COS
Returns the cosine of the given angle (in radians).
Syntax
COS(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose cosine is to be calculated.
To return the cosine of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function.
Example:
The angle 6.28 (2Pi) returns a cosine of 1.
The angle 3.14 (Pi) returns a cosine of 1.
\<bookmark_value\>COSH function\</bookmark_value\>COSH
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
Syntax
COSH(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose hyperbolic cosine is to be calculated.
Example:
Entering the value 5 will return a hyperbolic cosine of 74.21.
\<bookmark_value\>COT function\</bookmark_value\>COT
Returns the cotangent of the given angle (in radians).
Syntax
COT(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose cotangent is to be calculated.
To return the cotangent of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function.
The cotangent of an angle is equivalent to 1 divided by the tangent of that angle.
Example:
The angle 45 returns a cotangent of 0.62.
The angle 90 returns a cotangent of 0.5.
\<bookmark_value\>COTH function\</bookmark_value\>COTH
Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a given number (angle).
Syntax
COTH(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose hyperbolic cotangent is to be calculated.
Example:
Entering the value 90 returns a hyperbolic cotangent of 1.
\<bookmark_value\>ASIN function\</bookmark_value\>CSC
Returns the cosecant of the given angle (in radians). The cosecant of an angle is equivalent to 1 divided by the sine of that angle
Syntax
COSH(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose cosine is to be calculated.
To return the cosecant of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function.
Example:
=CSC(PI()/4) returns approximately 1.4142135624, the inverse of the sine of PI/4 radians.
The angle 3.14 (Pi) returns a cosine of 1.
\<bookmark_value\>ASIN function\</bookmark_value\>CSCH
Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a number.
Syntax
COSH(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose hyperbolic cosine is to be calculated.
Example:
=CSCH(1) returns approximately 0.8509181282, the hyperbolic cosecant of 1.
\<bookmark_value\>DEGREES function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>converting;radians, into degrees\</bookmark_value\>DEGREES
Converts radians into degrees.
Syntax
DEG(Number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value to be converted.
Example:
=DEGREES(PI()) returns 180 degrees.
\<bookmark_value\>EVEN function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>numbers;rounding up/down to even integers\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>rounding;up/down to even integers\</bookmark_value\>EVEN
Rounds a positive number up to the next even integer and a negative number down to the next even integer.
Syntax
EVEN(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number that is to be rounded.
Example:
If you enter the number 0.01, 2 will be returned as the result.
If you enter the number 0.01, 2 will be returned as the result.
The inverse trigonometric sine of 1 returns the value 1.57.
If you enter the number 0.01, 2 will be returned as the result.
\<bookmark_value\>EXP function\</bookmark_value\>EXP
Returns e raised to the power of a number. The constant e has a value of approximately 2.71828182845904.
Syntax
EXP(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the power to which e is to be raised.
Example:
The result for e raised to the power 4 is 0.02.
\<bookmark_value\>FACT function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>factorials;numbers\</bookmark_value\>FACT
Returns the factorial of a number.
Syntax
FACT(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose factorial is to be calculated.
=FACT(0) returns 1 by definition.
The factorial of a negative number returns the "invalid argument" error.
Example:
FACT(10) returns 3628800.
FACT(0) by definition returns 1.
\<bookmark_value\>FLOOR function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>rounding;down to nearest multiple of significance\</bookmark_value\>FLOOR
Rounds a number down to the nearest multiple of Significance.
Syntax
FLOOR(Number; Significance; Mode)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number that is to be rounded down.
\<emph\>Significance\</emph\> is the value to whose multiple the number is to be rounded down.
Mode is an optional value. If the Mode value is given and not equal to zero, and if Number and Significance are negative, then rounding is done based on the absolute value of Number, i.e. negative numbers are rounded towards zero. If the Mode value is equal to zero or is not given, negative numbers are rounded away from zero.
If the spreadsheet is exported to Microsoft Excel, the FLOOR function is exported as the equivalent FLOOR.MATH function that exists since Excel 2013. If you plan to use the spreadsheet with earlier Excel versions, use either FLOOR.PRECISE that exists since Excel 2010, or FLOOR.XCL that is exported as the FLOOR function compatible with all Excel versions. Note that FLOOR.XCL always rounds towards zero.
Example:
=FLOOR( 11; 2) returns 12
=FLOOR( 11; 2; 0) returns 12
=FLOOR( 11; 2; 1) returns 10
\<bookmark_value\>FLOOR function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>rounding;down to nearest multiple of significance\</bookmark_value\>FLOOR.PRECISE
Rounds a number down to the nearest multiple of Significance, regardless of sign of Significance
Syntax
FLOOR.PRECISE(Number; Significance)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number that is to be rounded down.
\<emph\>Significance\</emph\> is the value to whose multiple the number is to be rounded down.
Example:
=FLOOR( 11; 2) returns 12
\<bookmark_value\>GCD function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>greatest common divisor\</bookmark_value\>GCD
Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers.
The greatest common divisor is the positive largest integer which will divide, without remainder, each of the given integers.
Syntax
GCD(integer 1 to 30)
\<emph\>Integer 1 to 30\</emph\> are up to 30 integers whose greatest common divisor is to be calculated.
Example:
GCD(16;32;24) gives the result 8, because 8 is the largest number that can divide 16, 24 and 32 without a remainder.
GCD(B1:B3) where cells B1, B2, B3 contain 9, 12, 9 gives 3.
GCD_EXCEL2003
The result is the greatest common divisor of a list of numbers.
Syntax
GCD_EXCEL2003(Number(s))
Number(s) is a list of up to 30 numbers.
Example:
=GCD_EXCEL2003(5;15;25) returns 5.
\<bookmark_value\>INT function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>numbers;rounding down to next integer\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>rounding;down to next integer\</bookmark_value\>INT
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer.
Syntax
INT(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number that is to be rounded down to the nearest integer.
Negative numbers round down to the integer below.
Example:
If you enter the number 0.1, 1 will be returned as the result.
If you enter the number 23.74, 23 will be returned as the result.
\<bookmark_value\>CEILING function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>rounding;up to multiples of significance\</bookmark_value\>ISO.CEILING
Rounds a number up to the nearest multiple of Significance, regardless of sign of Significance
Syntax
ISO.CEILING(Number; Significance)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number that is to be rounded up.
\<emph\>Significance\</emph\> is the number to whose multiple the value is to be rounded up.
Example:
=CEILING( 11; 2) returns 10
\<bookmark_value\>LCM function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>least common multiples\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>lowest common multiples\</bookmark_value\>LCM
Returns the least common multiple of one or more integers.
Syntax
LCM(integer 1 to 30)
\<emph\>Integer 1 to 30\</emph\> are up to 30 integers whose lowest common multiple is to be calculated.
Example:
If you enter the numbers 512;1024 and 2000 in the Integer 1;2 and 3 text boxes, 128000 will be returned as the result.
LCM_EXCEL2003
The result is the lowest common multiple of a list of numbers.
Syntax
LCM_EXCEL2003(Number(s))
Number(s) is a list of up to 30 numbers.
Example:
=LCM_EXCEL2003(5;15;25) returns 75.
\<bookmark_value\>LN function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>natural logarithm\</bookmark_value\>LN
Returns the natural logarithm based on the constant e of a number. The constant e has a value of approximately 2.71828182845904.
Syntax
LN(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose natural logarithm is to be calculated.
Example:
The natural logarithm to the base e of the value 3 will return the rounded value of 1.1 as the result.
=GESTEP(5;1) returns 1.
\<bookmark_value\>LOG function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>logarithms\</bookmark_value\>LOG
Returns the logarithm of a number to the specified base.
Syntax
LOG(number; base)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose logarithm is to be calculated.
\<emph\>Base\</emph\> is the base for the logarithm calculation.
Example:
The logarithm of the number 10 to the base 3 will return 2.1 as the result.
If you enter the number 0.1, 1 will be returned as the result.
\<bookmark_value\>LOG10 function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>base10 logarithm\</bookmark_value\>LOG10
Returns the base10 logarithm of a number.
Syntax
LOG10(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the value whose logarithm to the base 10 is to be calculated.
Example:
The logarithm to the base 10 of the value 3 will return 0.48 as the result.
\<bookmark_value\>MOD function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>remainders of divisions\</bookmark_value\>MOD
Returns the remainder when one integer is divided by another.
Syntax
MOD(Dividend; Divisor)
\<emph\>Dividend\</emph\> is the value from which to find the remainder after dividing.
\<emph\>Divisor\</emph\> is the number by which to divide the specified value.
Example:
The value 17 in the Dividend field is to be divided by the divisor 1.4. 1.2 will be returned as the remainder.
Entering the value 56 will return an absolute value of 56.
\<bookmark_value\>MROUND function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>nearest multiple\</bookmark_value\>MROUND
Returns a number rounded to the nearest multiple of another number.
Syntax
MROUND(Number; Multiple)
Returns Number rounded to the nearest multiple of Multiple.
An alternative implementation would be Multiple * ROUND(Number/Multiple).
Example:
Which integer multiple of 3 is the number 15.5 closest to?
=MROUND(1.6;0.5) returns 1.5, the nearest integer multiple of 0.5 to approach 1.6.
\<bookmark_value\>MULTINOMIAL function\</bookmark_value\>MULTINOMIAL
Returns the factorial of the sum of the arguments divided by the product of the factorials of the arguments.
Syntax
MULTINOMIAL (Number(s))
Number(s) is a list of up to 30 numbers.
Example:
=MULTINOMIAL(F11:H11) returns 1260, if F11 to H11 contain the values 2, 3 and 4. This corresponds to the formula =(2+3+4)! / (2!*3!*4!)
\<bookmark_value\>ODD function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>rounding;up/down to nearest odd integer\</bookmark_value\>ODD
Rounds a positive number up to the nearest odd integer and a negative number down to the nearest odd integer.
Syntax
ODD(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number that is to be rounded.
Example:
If you enter the number 1.01, 3 will be returned as the result.
If you enter the number 1.01, 3 will be returned as the result.
If you enter the number 1.01, 3 will be returned as the result.
If you enter the number 1.01, 3 will be returned as the result.
\<bookmark_value\>PI function\</bookmark_value\>PI
Returns 3.14159265358979, the value of the mathematical constant PI to 14 decimal places.
Syntax
PI()
Example:
=PI() returns 3.14159265358979.
\<bookmark_value\>POWER function\</bookmark_value\>POWER
Returns a number raised to another number.
Syntax
POWER(Base; Exponent)
\<emph\>Base\</emph\> is the number that is to be raised to a given power.
The same result may be achieved by using the exponentiation operator ^:
Base^Exponent
Example:
If you enter 3 as the base and 2 as the power, 0.11 will be returned as the result.
=4^3 also returns 4 to the power of 3.
\<bookmark_value\>PRODUCT function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>numbers;multiplying\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>multiplying;numbers\</bookmark_value\>PRODUCT
Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.
Syntax
PRODUCT(number 1 to 30)
\<emph\>Number 1 to number 30\</emph\> are up to 30 arguments whose product is to be calculated.
PRODUCT returns number1 * number2 * number3 * ...
Example:
If you enter the numbers 2; 3 and 4 in the Number 1; 2 and 3 text boxes, 24 will be returned as the result.
\<bookmark_value\>QUOTIENT function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>divisions\</bookmark_value\>QUOTIENT
Returns the integer part of a division operation.
Syntax
QUOTIENT(Numerator;Denominator)
Returns the integer part of Numerator divided by Denominator.
QUOTIENT is equivalent to INT(numerator/denominator) for samesign numerator and denominator, except that it may report errors with different error codes. More generally, it is equivalent to INT(numerator/denominator/SIGN(numerator/denominator))*SIGN(numerator/denominator).
Example:
=QUOTIENT(11;3) returns 3. The remainder of 2 is lost.
\<bookmark_value\>RADIANS function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>converting;degrees, into radians\</bookmark_value\>RADIANS
Converts degrees to radians.
Syntax
RADIANS(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the angle in degrees.
Example:
=RADIANS(90) returns 1.5707963267949, which is PI/2 to Calc's accuracy.
\<bookmark_value\>RAND function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>random numbers;between 0 and 1\</bookmark_value\>RAND
Returns a random number between 0 and 1.
Syntax
RAND( )
This function produces a new random number each time Calc recalculates. To force Calc to recalculate manually press F9.
To generate random numbers which never recalculate, copy cells each containing =RAND(), and use
(with and not marked and marked).Example:
=RAND() returns a random number between 0 and 1.
\<bookmark_value\>random numbers; between limits\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>RANDBETWEEN function\</bookmark_value\>RANDBETWEEN
Returns an integer random number in a specified range.
Syntax
RANDBETWEEN (Bottom; Top)
Returns an integer random number between integers Bottom and Top (both inclusive).
This function produces a new random number each time Calc recalculates. To force Calc to recalculate manually press Shift+CommandCtrl+F9.
To generate random numbers which never recalculate, copy cells containing this function, and use
(with and not marked and marked).Example:
=RANDBETWEEN (20;30) returns an integer of between 20 and 30.
\<bookmark_value\>ROUND function\</bookmark_value\>ROUND
Rounds a number to a certain number of decimal places.
Syntax
ROUND(number; count)
\<emph\>number\</emph\> is the number to be rounded.
This function rounds to the nearest number. See ROUNDDOWN and ROUNDUP for alternatives.
Example:
If you enter the number 17.546 in the \<emph\>number\</emph\> field, with 1 specified as the number of rounding places, 17.5 will be returned as the result.
=ROUND(32.4834; 3) returns 32.483. Change the cell format to see all decimals.
If you enter the number 17.546 in the \<emph\>number\</emph\> field, with 1 specified as the number of rounding places, 17.5 will be returned as the result.
If you enter the number 1.01, 3 will be returned as the result.
Entering the value 123.343 and the value 2 in the \<emph\>count\</emph\> field will return the value 123.35.
\<bookmark_value\>ROUNDDOWN function\</bookmark_value\>ROUNDDOWN
Rounds a number down, toward zero, to a certain precision.
Syntax
ROUNDDOWN(number; count)
\<emph\>number\</emph\> is the number to be rounded down.
This function rounds towards zero. See ROUNDUP and ROUND for alternatives.
Example:
Entering the value 567.567 and the value 2 in the \<emph\>count\</emph\> field will return 567.56.
Entering the value 567.567 and the value 2 in the \<emph\>count\</emph\> field will return 567.56.
Entering the value 567.567 and the value 2 in the \<emph\>count\</emph\> field will return 567.56.
Entering the value 567.567 and the value 2 in the \<emph\>count\</emph\> field will return 567.56.
\<bookmark_value\>ROUNDUP function\</bookmark_value\>ROUNDUP
Rounds a number up, away from zero, to a certain precision.
Syntax
ROUNDUP(number; count)
\<emph\>number\</emph\> is the number to be rounded up.
This function rounds away from zero. See ROUNDDOWN and ROUND for alternatives.
Example:
Entering the value 123.343 and the value 2 in the \<emph\>count\</emph\> field will return the value 123.35.
Entering the value 567.567 and the value 2 in the \<emph\>count\</emph\> field will return 567.56.
Entering the value 123.343 and the value 2 in the \<emph\>count\</emph\> field will return the value 123.35.
If you enter the number 4.5, 1 will be returned as the result.
Entering the value 123.343 and the value 2 in the \<emph\>count\</emph\> field will return the value 123.35.
\<bookmark_value\>SKEW function\</bookmark_value\>SEC
Returns the secant of the given angle (in radians). The secant of an angle is equivalent to 1 divided by the cosine of that angle
Syntax
SIN(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the angle in radians.
To return the secant of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function.
Example:
=SEC(PI()/4) returns approximately 1.4142135624, the inverse of the cosine of PI/4 radians.
The angle 3.14 (Pi) returns a cosine of 1.
\<bookmark_value\>SEARCH function\</bookmark_value\>SECH
Returns the hyperbolic secant of a number.
Syntax
SINH(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number whose hyperbolic sine is to be calculated.
Example:
If you enter the value 5, 74.2 will be returned as the hyperbolic sine.
\<bookmark_value\>SERIESSUM function\</bookmark_value\>SERIESSUM
Sums the first terms of a power series.
SERIESSUM(x;n;m;coefficients) = coefficient_1*x^n + coefficient_2*x^(n+m) + coefficient_3*x^(n+2m) +...+ coefficient_i*x^(n+(i1)m)
Syntax
SERIESSUM(x; n; m; coefficients)
x: the number as an independent variable
n: the starting power
m: the increment
coefficients: a series of coefficients. For each coefficient the series sum is extended by one section.
\<bookmark_value\>SIGN function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>algebraic signs\</bookmark_value\>SIGN
Returns the sign of a number. Returns 1 if the number is positive, 1 if negative and 0 if zero.
Syntax
SIGN(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number whose sign is to be determined.
Example:
If you enter the number 3.4, 1 will be returned as the result.
If you enter the number 4.5, 1 will be returned as the result.
\<bookmark_value\>SIN function\</bookmark_value\>SIN
Returns the sine of the given angle (in radians).
Syntax
SIN(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the angle in radians.
To return the sine of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function.
Example:
The sine of the angle (in radians) 3.14 (Pi) is 0.
The angle 3.14 (Pi) returns a cosine of 1.
\<bookmark_value\>SINH function\</bookmark_value\>SINH
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.
Syntax
SINH(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number whose hyperbolic sine is to be calculated.
Example:
If you enter the value 5, 74.2 will be returned as the hyperbolic sine.
\<bookmark_value\>SQRT function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>square roots;positive numbers\</bookmark_value\>SQRT
Returns the positive square root of a number.
Syntax
SQRT(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number whose square root is to be calculated.
Number must be positive.
Example:
The square root of 16 is 4.
=SQRT(16) returns an invalid argument error.
\<bookmark_value\>SQRTPI function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>square roots;products of Pi\</bookmark_value\>SQRTPI
Returns the square root of (PI times a number).
Syntax
SQRTPI (Number)
Returns the positive square root of (PI multiplied by Number).
This is equivalent to SQRT(PI()*Number).
Example:
=SQRTPI(2) returns the rounded value 2.506628.
\<bookmark_value\>AutoFilter function; subtotals\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>sums;of filtered data\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>filtered data; sums\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>SUBTOTAL function\</bookmark_value\>SUBTOTAL
Calculates subtotals. If a range already contains subtotals, these are not used for further calculations. Use this function with the AutoFilters to take only the filtered records into account.
Syntax
SUBTOTAL(function; range)
\<emph\>Function\</emph\> is a number that stands for one of the following functions:
Function index (includes hidden values) 
Function index (ignores hidden values) 
Function 
1 
101 
AVERAGE 
2 
102 
COUNT 
3 
103 
COUNTA 
4 
104 
MAX 
5 
105 
MIN 
6 
106 
PRODUCT 
7 
107 
STDEV 
8 
108 
STDEVP 
9 
109 
SUM 
10 
110 
VAR 
11 
111 
VARP 
Use numbers 111 to include manually hidden rows or 101111 to exclude them; filteredout cells are always excluded.
\<emph\>Range\</emph\> is the range whose cells are included.
Example:
You have a table in the cell range A1:B6 containing a bill of material for 10 students. Row 2 (Pen) is manually hidden. You want to see the sum of the figures that are displayed; that is, just the subtotal for the filtered rows. In this case the correct formula would be:
A 
B 

1 
ITEM 
QUANTITY 
2 
Pen 
10 
3 
Pencil 
10 
4 
Notebook 
10 
5 
Rubber 
10 
6 
Sharpener 
10 
=SUBTOTAL(9;B2:B6) returns 50.
=SUBTOTAL(109;B2:B6) returns 40.
\<bookmark_value\>SUM function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>adding;numbers in cell ranges\</bookmark_value\>SUM
Adds all the numbers in a range of cells.
Syntax
SUM(number1; number 2; ...; number 30)
\<emph\>Number 1 to number 30\</emph\> are up to 30 arguments whose sum is to be calculated.
Example:
If you enter the numbers 2; 3 and 4 in the Number 1; 2 and 3 text boxes, 9 will be returned as the result.
SUM(A1;A3;B5) calculates the sum of the three cells. SUM (A1:E10) calculates the sum of all cells in the A1 to E10 cell range.
Conditions linked by AND can be used with the function SUM() in the following manner:
Example assumption: You have entered invoices into a table. Column A contains the date value of the invoice, column B the amounts. You want to find a formula that you can use to return the total of all amounts only for a specific month, e.g. only the amount for the period >=1.1.99 to <1.2.99. The range with the date values covers A1:A40, the range containing the amounts to be totaled is B1:B40. C1 contains the start date, 1.1.99, of the invoices to be included and C2 the date, 1.2.99, that is no longer included.
Enter the following formula as an array formula:
=SUM((A1:A40>=C1)*(A1:A40<C2)*B1:B40)
In order to enter this as an array formula, you must press the Shift+Command+ Ctrl+ Enter keys instead of simply pressing the Enter key to close the formula. The formula will then be shown in the Formula bar enclosed in braces.
{=SUM((A1:A40>=C1)*(A1:A40<C2)*B1:B40)}
The formula is based on the fact that the result of a comparison is 1, if the criterion is met and 0 if it is not. The individual comparison results will be treated as an array and used in matrix multiplication, and at the end the individual values will be totaled to give the result matrix.
\<bookmark_value\>SUMIF function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>adding;specified numbers\</bookmark_value\>SUMIF
Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. This function is used to browse a range when you search for a certain value.
Syntax
SUMIF(range; criteria; sum_range)
\<emph\>Range\</emph\> is the range to which the criteria are to be applied.
\<emph\>Criteria\</emph\> is the cell in which the search criterion is shown, or the search criterion itself. If the criteria is written into the formula, it has to be surrounded by double quotes.
\<emph\>Sum_range\</emph\> is the range from which values are summed. If this parameter has not been indicated, the values found in the \<emph\>Range\</emph\> are summed.
SUMIF supports the reference concatenation operator (~) only in the Criteria parameter, and only if the optional SumRange parameter is not given.
Example:
To sum up only negative numbers: SUMIF(A1:A10;"<0")
=SUMIF(A1:A10;">0";B1:10)  sums values from the range B1:B10 only if the corresponding values in the range A1:A10 are >0.
See COUNTIF() for some more syntax examples that can be used with SUMIF().
\<bookmark_value\>SUMSQ function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>square number additions\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>sums;of square numbers\</bookmark_value\>SUMSQ
If you want to calculate the sum of the squares of numbers (totaling up of the squares of the arguments), enter these into the text fields.
Syntax
SUMSQ(number 1 to 30)
\<emph\>Number 1 to number 30\</emph\> are up to 30 arguments the sum of whose squares is to be calculated.
Example:
If you enter the numbers 2; 3 and 4 in the \<emph\>Number 1\</emph\>; \<emph\>2\</emph\> and \<emph\>3\</emph\> text boxes, 29 is returned as the result.
\<bookmark_value\>TAN function\</bookmark_value\>TAN
Returns the tangent of the given angle (in radians).
Syntax
TAN(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the angle in radians.
To return the tangent of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function.
Example:
The tangent of the angle (in radians) 3.14 (Pi) is 0.
The angle 90 returns a cotangent of 0.5.
\<bookmark_value\>TANH function\</bookmark_value\>TANH
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.
Syntax
TANH(number)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number whose hyperbolic tangent is to be calculated.
Example:
If you enter the value 5, the system returns the hyperbolic tangent 1.
\<bookmark_value\>TRUNC function\</bookmark_value\>\<bookmark_value\>decimal places;cutting off\</bookmark_value\>TRUNC
Truncates a number by removing decimal places.
Syntax
TRUNC(number; count)
\<emph\>Number\</emph\> is the number whose decimal places are to be cut off.
\<emph\>Count\</emph\> is the number of places after the decimal delimiter that are not to be truncated.
The visible decimal places of the result are specified in LibreOffice  PreferencesTools  Options  LibreOffice Calc  Calculate.
Example:
If you enter the number 34.5678 and the count 1, 34.5 will be returned as the result.
If you enter the number 34.5678 and the count 1, 34.5 will be returned as the result.